It is January 1, 2012, the start of a new year in the Gregorian calendar, and that means, it's Public Domain Day!
Yes, the earth having orbited the sun once again, copyrights in millions of words, images, and other works of human creativity and genius, expired wherever in the world copyrights subsist for the life of the creator (or last-surviving of multiple creators), for X years thereafter, and then to the end of that year.
Such works do not include only "literary works" in the sense of literature: they also include written works in the pure and applied sciences, humanities, biography and autobiography, as well as musical and artistic works. They include works by presidents and peasants, heroes and villains, from ever corner, in every language and medium.
In the life+50 universe, which includes Canada, the key date is 1961. Some of the more prominent transitions to the public domain today include works by:
- Canadian novelist Mazo de la Roche
- British politician and Newfoundland Commissioner Sir John Hope Simpson
- American author Ernest Hemingway
- Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung
- Swedish diplomat and author Dag Hammarskjöld
- Austrian physicist Erwin Schrödinger
- American writer and cartoonist James Thurber
- American artist Grandma Moses
- American playwright Moss Hart
- American artist Max Weber
- Italian mathematician Beppo Levi
- Serbian poet Branko Miljković
- Nazi war criminal Kurt Meyer (published his self-serving memoir “Grenadiere” in 1957)
And many, many more. See below for just a short list. Really.
As an illustration of the impact on copyright term of multiple authorship, American baseball player Ty Cobb's autobiography, “My Life in Baseball”, would have been public domain today if Cobb were the sole author. However, as a collaboration with sports writer Al Stump, the work will remain in life+50 copyright until 2046, as Stump lived until 1995.
On the other hand, Irving Cohn's death in 1961 means “Yes, We Have No Bananas” is now public-domain in the life+50 universe. The life+50 clock ran out on his collaborator, Frank Silver, one year ago today.
Over in the life+70 universe, which includes most of Europe, the biggest name is James Joyce — the long tyrrany of the Joyce Estate is over, at least in respect of works published during the author's lifetime.
Works by the founder of the Scouting movement, Lord Baden-Powell, are also life+70 public-domain today — as are, interestingly enough, those of American writer Sherwood Anderson and Ukrainian writer Petro Franko, who were pioneers of related scouting movements in their respective countries.
The life+70 copyrights of American military aviator and poet John Gillespie Magee, Jr. have also expired, most notably his poem “High Flight”. Magee was serving in the Royal Canadian Air Force at the time of his death.
The impact of the Second World War figures prominently in the list of life+70 copyright expiries, given the deaths of so many political, literary, military, religious, and other figures, whether in combat, in the Holocaust and other war-time atrocities, or in totalitarian purges or civil unrest in many countries throughout the world.
In the United States, life+70 copyrights have also now expired in respect of previously unpublished works by authors who died in 1941. This includes many manuscript records, such as letters or diaries, held in archives, historical societies, museums, and other such institutions.
(In Canada, thanks to poor legislative drafting and bad policy decisions, not a single additional scrap of unpublished archival paper, by anyone who has died since 1948, will become public domain until 2049. Thus, while Mazo de la Roche's book copyrights have expired, any of her surviving, previously unpublished letters or other manuscripts are still "protected" by copyright. Unless it is changed in the interim, the copyright rules concerning unpublished literary works will have a deleterious impact on Canadian scholarship for decades to come.)
A few other prominent or interesting creators whose life+70 copyrights have now expired include:
- Indian writer and Nobel laureate Rabindranath Tagore
- English author Virginia Woolf
- American astronomer Annie Jump Cannon
- American author and illustrator Daniel Carter Beard
- British egyptologist N. de Garis Davies
- American songwriter Gus Kahn
- American linguist Benjamin Lee Whorf
- British writer P. C. Wren (“Beau Geste”)
- American lyricist Howard Johnson (“I Scream, You Scream, We All Scream for Ice Cream”)
- British archaeologist Arthur Evans
- Australian poet Banjo Paterson (“Waltzing Matilda”)
- Canadian physician, co-discoverer of insulin Frederick Banting
- American Supreme Court justice Louis Brandeis
And of course, many, many more. Another short list appears below.
(Note that the inclusion of an author or work on the life+50 or life+70 public domain list is subject to all sorts of potentially complicating wrinkles depending on your country's copyright laws, including co-authorship effects, the Rule of the Shorter Term, war-related term extensions, retroactive extension, domaine public payant, and moral rights. And let's not even get into the thorny problem of countries with shorter, longer, or wierder copyright terms.)
Copyright is necessary for our cultural life and cultural economy. But so is copyright expiration, allowing us all to build on the collective cultural and intellectual past of our own countries and of the entire world. If you value the public domain, and reasonable limits on the breadth, scope, and duration of copyright, and oppose the march towards pointlessly-longer copyright terms, write your local elected official today and make your feelings known.
Short live copyright, and long live the public domain!
SOME OTHER AUTHORS WHOSE WORKS HAVE ENTERED THE LIFE+50 PUBLIC DOMAIN
ARTS, ARCHITECTURE, DESIGN: Lithuanian sculptor Petras Rimša; Swiss artist Cuno Amiet; Australian artist Lionel Lindsay; Dutch architect Albert Aalbers; American artist Jane Emmet de Glehn; French sculptor Paul Landowski (“Christ the Redeemer”, Rio de Janeiro); Norwegian sculptor Anne Grimdalen; Scottish artist John Macdonald Aiken; Italian artist Mario Sironi; American illustrator Wilson McCoy (“The Phantom”); Italian sculptor Arrigo Minerbi; Ukrainian-born American artist John D. Graham; English painter Harold Knight; French designer Jules Leleu; French artist Georges Henri Manzana Pissarro; Welsh artist Augustus John; French sculptor Robert Delandre; Norwegian-Danish artist and critic Pola Gauguin; Peruvian artist Sérvulo Gutiérrez; British-Canadian architect Peter Dickinson (Hummingbird Centre); English botanical artist Mary Emily Eaton; French illustrator Joseph Hémard; Italian-American sculptor Leo Lentelli; German communist journalist Karl Volk; American designer Alice Cordelia Morse; English architect and planner William Robert Davidge; American artist and writer Clark Ashton Smith; Hungarian painter István Csók; Scottish artist John Duncan Fergusson; German artist Werner Gilles; American stained-glass artist Lawrence Saint; Italian painter Cesare Maggi; American cartoonist Hal Rasmusson; Danish artist Johannes Larsen; English painter Vanessa Bell; Flemish artist Jean Baptiste Leopold Colin; Finnish architect and designer Eero Saarinen (St. Lewis Gateway Arch, Star Trek “tulip chairs”); Russian artist Nadezhda Udaltsova; Serbian artist Kosta Hakman; Dutch architect Jan Buijs; Japanese artist Seiu Ito; French illustrator Chéri Herouard; Portuguese artist José Dias Coelho; German artist Karl Albiker; German artist and author Fritz Mühlenweg; Slovene artist and poet Jakob Savinšek; American caricaturist Kate Carew; American artist Albert Bloch; American sculptor Frederick Warren Allen; Canadian-American illustrator Charles Archibald MacLellan; Mexican artist Carlos Alvarado Lang; Ukrainian artist Kateryna Vasylivna Bilokur; Mexican writer and artist Marius de Zayas; American artist Violet Oakley; French artist and author Jean Oberlé; Hungarian sculptor István Beöthy; Czech artist František Cína Jelínek; German artist Fritz Lang ; Spanish sculptor Francisco Asorey; Brazilian artist Oswaldo Goeldi; American artist Huc-Mazelet Luquiens; Scottish sculptor William Reid Dick; French sculptor Marcel Gimond; American artist Frank Tolles Chamberlin; Dutch architect Piet Kramer; Norwegian architect Arnstein Arneberg.
HUMANITIES, SOCIAL SCIENCES, RELIGION: Romanian theologian and writer Gala Galaction; French historian Auguste-Armand de la Force; Canadian-born classical scholar Herbert Jennings Rose ; Japanese economist Tadao Yanaihara; Bulgarian economist Dimitar Dobrev ; American historian Robert Preston Brooks; German-born author and astrologer Louis de Wohl; Martinique-born philosopher Frantz Fanon; Danish philologist Carsten Høeg; Ukrainian musicologist Moshe Beregovski; Norwegian geographer Werner Werenskiold; Swedish literary historian Fredrik Böök; Anglo-Canadian philosopher Rupert Lodge; Belgian philosopher Robert Feys; American philosopher George Holland Sabine; American classicist Marion Elizabeth Blake; English archivist William Le Hardy; Turkish historian and politician Şemsettin Günaltay; Italian economist and politician Luigi Einaudi; Puerto Rican historian Bolívar Pagán; Estonian historian Richard Indreko; American clergyman William Henry Branson; American ethnologist John Peabody Harrington; British historian Norman H. Baynes; American educator Louis P. Bénézet; British historian Charles Webster ; American musicologist Archibald Thompson Davison; French philosopher Maurice Merleau-Ponty; American anthropologist Fay-Cooper Cole; French archaeologist Étienne Drioton; Norwegian historian Sverre Kjeldstadli; Prussian-born classicist Werner Jaeger; American folklorist Robert Winslow Gordon; American pseudoscientist Meade Layne; Armenian historian Vahan Kurkjian; Irish art historian Thomas Bodkin; Tamil scholar R. P. Sethu Pillai; Romanian philosopher Lucian Blaga.
LITERATURE AND JOURNALISM: Tunisian poet Salem Ben Hmida; American author James Cloyd Bowman; Russian artist and writer Vasily Kamensky; Norwegian journalist Lise Lindbæk; Australian writer Edmund Barclay; Canadian writer M. Wylie Blanchet; Norwegian writer Olav Gullvåg; Faroese writer and translator Victor Danielsen; Japanese playwright and novelist Nagayo Yoshirō; Japanese author Mimei Ogawa; Australian novelist Alice Grant Rosman; Haitian poet Roussan Camille; Australian poet Harry Hooton; American playwright Dorothy Heyward (“Porgy”); Australian poet Rupert Atkinson; American sports writer Walter S. Trumbull; Cuban writer Jorge Mañach; Finnish pulp writer Aarne Haapakoski; English-born writer Ivy May Bolton; American writer Jessie Redmon Fauset; Japanese writer Michio Takeyama; American writer Mary Craig Sinclair; American author Julia Lynch Olin; American writer Josephine Daskam Bacon; American writer Mary Freeman Byrne; American poet Ruby Archer ; Czech writer Bedřich Golombek; Swedish writer Hjalmar Gullberg; Norwegian writer Kitty Wentzel; British novelist E. Arnot Robertson; Ainu epic poet Imekanu; American literary critic Henry Seidel Canby; Canadian-American writer Isabel Paterson; American writer H.D.; English author Christopher Landon; American playwright George S. Kaufman; Kazakh playwright Mukhtar Auezov; Czech writer Jan Matzal ; French poet André de Richaud; Argentinian writer Enrique Larreta; American editor and writer Isaac Frederick Marcosson; Swiss-French writer Blaise Cendrars; Brazilian writer José de Mesquita; Polish writer Stefania Zahorska; American novellist Thomas Bell ; Swiss poet Regina Ullmann; Swedish poet Nils Ferlin; Australian writer Ethel Cooper; American novelist Henry Morton Robinson; British author Cecil Chisholm; American writer Louis J. Stellman; Italian writer E. A. Mario; Anglo-American writer Francis Neilson; Romanian-American writer Konrad Bercovici; British crime writer Patricia Wentworth; Dutch novelist Antoon Coolen; Haitian novellist Jacques Stephen Alexis; Danish playwright Kjeld Abell; Monagesque writer Louis Notari; German writer Leonhard Frank; English detective writer H. C. Bailey; Senegalese author Abdoulaye Sadji; Welsh poet Huw Menai; Dutch writer Nescio; Indian poet Amjad Hyderabadi; American writer Clare Benedict; American author Nell Martin; English children's author Joanna Cannan; Australian novelist Jeannie Gunn (“We of the Never Never”); Russian writer Olga Forsh; Norwegian writer Kristofer Uppdal; German translator Franz Kuhn; English author Oliver Onions; Romanian author Cezar Petrescu; Japanese novelist Muramatsu Shōfu; British poet and publisher Geoffrey Faber; American novellist Ruth Chatterton; English poet Herbert Edward Palmer; Egyptian poet Mahmud Bayram el-Tunsi; Romanian novelist Mihail Sadoveanu; Anglo-Australian novelist Angela Thirkell; Japanese writer Kōji Uno; American writer Julia Peterkin; American author Lavinia R. Davis; Libyan poet Ahmed Rafiq Almhadoui; German communist journalist Kurt Lichtenstein; English writer Charles Hamilton ; Mexican author Rogelio Barriga Rivas; American children's author Carolyn Sherwin Bailey; Italian writer Giovanni Battista Angioletti; Norwegian crime novelist Fridtjof Knutsen; French writer Émile Henriot ; American author Lewis Reimann; American writer Kenneth Fearing; Canadian writer Judith Robinson; Indian writer Kusumavati Deshpande; American poet Robert Hillyer; American writer Dorothy Thompson; Japanese author Shigeru Tonomura; Czech author Jakub Deml; Italian writer (and mistress to Benito Mussolini) Margherita Sarfatti; American detective writer Dashiell Hammett (“The Maltese Falcon”); French writer Louis-Ferdinand Céline; American author Ellen LaMotte; English-born artist and author Katharine Maltwood; Lithuanian writer Antanas Škėma; Romanian author Alexandru Busuioceanu; American journalist Cedric Adams; Maltese writer Dun Karm Psaila; American writer Whittaker Chambers.
MUSIC AND FILM: American composer John J. Becker; French composer Maurice Delage; American jazz musician Jerry Blake; American composer Wilbur Sweatman; German composer Robert Pracht; German composer Walter Goetze; Greenlandic songwriter Jonathan Petersen; Australian composer W. Arundel Orchard; English composer Katharine Emily Eggar; American songwriter Art Gillham; Italian composer Guido Alberto Fano; Spanish composer Julián Bautista; British composer Adelina de Lara; American composer Robert MacArthur Crawford (“The Air Force Song”); American composer Fitzhugh Andrews; French composer Guy de Lioncourt; Hungarian director Géza von Bolváry; Spanish Basque composer Jesús Guridi; American composer Theodore Chanler; Icelandic composer Björgvin Guðmundsson; Canadian composer Gérald Gagnier; Canadian composer Henri Gagnon; Japanese anime pioneer Noburō Ōfuji; American composer Tom Scott ; Chinese songwriter Chen Gexin; Australian-American composer Percy Grainger; English composer Henry Geehl; Egyptian musician Zakariyya Ahmad ; Puerto Rican songwriter Sylvia Rexach; British lyricist Douglas Furber; Finnish poet and composer Elmer Diktonius; Canadian composer Jack Kane ; American composer Wallingford Riegger; Finnish composer Nils-Eric Fougstedt; French songwriter Marguerite Monnot; Russian composer Alexander Goldenweiser ; Finnish composer Uuno Klami; American writer and director Edward F. Cline; Canadian composer Rosario Bourdon; English composer York Bowen; Swiss artist Carl Eugen Keel; American film director Denison Clift; Swedish composer John Fernström; Danish composer Victor Cornelius; English entertainer and songwriter George Formby; British lyricist and writer Archibald Thomas Pechey; British screenwriter Alex Bryce.
POLITICS, LAW, BUSINESS: Armenian-Canadian businessman Aris Alexanian ; Canadian journalist and politician George Murray; Finnish nationalist Erkki Räikkönen; Newfoundland politician Robert Brown Job; English philanthropist Basil Henriques; American writer and labour activist Ralph Chaplin (“Solidarity Forever” lyricist); American judge and legal scholar Learned Hand; American diplomat Sumner Welles; American socialist E.B. "Harry" Ault; American business executive Chester Barnard; Dutch counterintelligence officer Oreste Pinto; Australian politician Bruce Pie; Irish peer and writer Edward Pakenham, 6th Earl of Longford; American public-opinion pollster Claude E. Robinson; American suffragette Margretta Dietrich; American lawyer David Hunter Miller; American pacifist Emily Greene Balch; Puerto Rican politician Cayetano Coll y Cuchí; American naval officer Ellis M. Zacharias; Chinese journalist and politician Xia Qifeng; American naval officer and naval architect Harold E. Saunders; English lawyer and politician Abraham Montagu Lyons.
PURE AND APPLIED SCIENCES, MEDICINE, MATHEMATICS: American botanist John Thomas Curtis; Danish engineer Anker Engelund; Egyptian archaeologist Selim Hassan; German mathematician Erich Kamke; German crystallographer Carl Hermann; American chemist Atherton Seidell; Danish botanist Johannes Boye Petersen; English mathematician Wilfrid Norman Bailey; French neurologist Georges Guillain; British Antarctic explorer Michael Barne; English chemist Morris Travers; American entomologist Philip Powell Calvert; German neurologist Klaus Conrad; British astronomer Philibert Jacques Melotte; South African zoologist and archaeologist John Hewitt ; Canadian Arctic zoologist Rudolph Martin Anderson; Romanian mathematician and poet Ion Barbu; French archaeologist Abbé Breuil; Belgian microbiologist Jules Bordet; Australian ornithologist Raymond Trewolla Littlejohns; German astronomer Paul ten Bruggencate; Indian physicist Sir Kariamanickam Srinivasa Krishnan; British marine biologist Thomas Alan Stephenson; Romanian mathematician Simion Stoilow; Estonian mathematician Edgar Krahn; American Antarctic explorer Stuart Paine; Italian mathematician Francesco Severi; Danish oceanographer Anton Frederik Bruun; Polish archaeologist Tadeusz Andrzejewski; American physician Edgar Van Nuys Allen ; American physicist Howard Percy Robertson; English physician and writer Henry Howarth ; English mountaineer Hugh Ruttledge; American physicist and Nobel laureate Percy Williams Bridgman; British botanist Frederick Gugenheim Gregory; English physicist William Astbury; American surgeon Emily Barringer; Danish botanist Olaf Hagerup; German-American electrical engineer Reinhold Rudenberg; Dutch physicist Henk Dorgelo; American mathematician Cyrus Colton MacDuffee; Bengali science writer Charu Chandra Bhattacharya; German-American pharmacologist and Nobel laureate Otto Loewi; Indian astronomer Amil Kumar Das; American physician and humanitarian Thomas Anthony Dooley III.
SOME OTHER AUTHORS WHOSE WORKS HAVE ENTERED THE LIFE+70 PUBLIC DOMAIN
ARTS, ARCHITECTURE, DESIGN: Irish artist Mildred Anne Butler; Australian artist John Longstaff; Czech poet and artist František Kaván; English illustrator Edgar Alfred Holloway; Belgian artist Eugène Boch; Russian-born artist Alexej von Jawlensky; French artist Robert Delaunay; French artist Émile Bernard; Georgian artist Shalom Koboshvili; Luxembourg artist Sosthène Weis; Hungarian artist Vilmos Aba-Novák; Czech artist František Bílek; French artist Maximilien Luce; Mexican artist Leandro Izaguirre; Italian artist Ludovico Tommasi; American war artist Walter Jack Duncan; Italian artist Ettore Tito; English artist and writer Wynford Dewhurst; Dutch artist Leo Gestel; Japanese-born artist Yasushi Tanaka; American artist William McGregor Paxton; Peruvian artist Carlos Baca-Flor; English artist Louis Davis; Indian artist Amrita Sher-Gil; American sculptor Roland Hinton Perry; Australian artist Albert Ernest Newbury; American artist George de Forest Brush; French artist Jean Marchand ; English woodcut artist Mabel Allington Royds; Irish artist John Lavery; Irish artist William Gerard Barry; American artist Louis Eilshemius; English artist and illustrator Sidney Sime; British artist and illustrator Henry Justice Ford; French artist and author Frédéric-Auguste Cazals; American author and illustrator Dillwyn Parrish; American artist Frederick Gottwald; Russian artist El Lissitzky; Hungarian artist Károly Patkó; German-American illustrator Max Brödel; German writer and artist Herwarth Walden.
HUMANITIES, SOCIAL SCIENCES, RELIGION: British archaeologist John Pendlebury; Russian linguist A. V. Grebenshchikov; Scottish historian and economist James Bonar; German economist Werner Sombart; Swedish anthropologist C. V. Hartman; Indian scholar Ganganath Jha; English biblical scholar J. Rendel Harris; Norwegian philologist Anton Ræder; French geographer Lucien Gallois; Serbian historian Vladimir Ćorović; Byelorussian Jewish historian Simon Dubnow; American anthropologist Elsie Clews Parsons; American linguist Guy Sumner Lowman; British assyriologist Reginald Campbell Thompson; English church historian F. J. Foakes-Jackson; English classicist Leonard Whibley; British archaeologist William Hawley; Belgian hagiographer Hippolyte Delehaye; British economist Josiah Stamp; American English professor George Lyman Kittredge; American Sanskrit scholar Charles Rockwell Lanman; Australian historian and politician Thomas Welsby; German classicist Friedrich Marx; Polish anthropologist Ludwik Krzywicki; Portuguese ethnographer and historian José Leite de Vasconcelos; German philosopher Hans Lipps; German art historian Josef Strzygowski; Polish philologist Henryk Breit; Swedish historian Carl Grimberg; Scottish anthropologist James George Frazer; Austrian musicologist Guido Adler; German mystic A. Frank Glahn; Finnish philosopher Arvi Grotenfelt; Japanese philosopher Kuki Shūzō; English Christian mystic Evelyn Underhill; American educator Ellwood Patterson Cubberley; Italian political scientist Gaetano Mosca; Italian philosopher Giuseppe Rensi; British historian C. R. M. F. Cruttwell; German historian and archaeologist Karl Siegfried Döring; British archaeologist Francis Turville-Petre; American historian Worthington C. Ford; American historian James Westfall Thompson; French philospher and Nobel laureate Henri Bergson; Polish Jewish historian Meir Balaban; British art historian Gilbert Richard Redgrave; German orientalist Gustaf Dalman; German philosopher Alexander Pfänder; English historian Ramsay Muir; American religious historian Preserved Smith; Spanish economist Antonio Flores de Lemus.
LITERATURE AND JOURNALISM: Australian poet Enid Derham; Greek children's author Penelope Delta; American author Frances Little; Scottish writer A. G. Macdonell; Italian journalist Luigi Albertini; New Zealand-born English writer Hugh Walpole; Indonesian author Merari Siregar; Irish poet F. R. Higgins; English writer Bessie Marchant; English writer William Arthur Dunkerley; Soviet children's author Arkady Gaidar; Anglo-American pulp writer J. Allan Dunn; Hungarian writer Mihály Babits; German writer Eduard Heyck; Catalan poet and essayist Gabriel Alomar i Villalonga; Russian poet Igor Severyanin; American writer William Cranston Lawton; Russian playwright Alexander Afinogenov; English poet Jessie Pope; Swedish writer Hjalmar Söderberg; French author Marcel Prévost; American journalist and author Charles Edward Russell; Syrian poet Qustaki al-Himsi; French poet Tristan Derème; Chinese author Xu Dishan; Indian poet Fani Badayuni; Australian writer Winifred Lewellin James; German-American novelist Hans Otto Storm; English writer A. J. A. Symons; Polish writer Witold Hulewicz; German writer and translator Margarete Steffin; Russian writer Arkady Gornfeld; Ukrainian writer Bohdan Lepky; American socialist journalist David Karsner; American writer Margaret Cushing Osgood; Persian poet Parvin E'tesami; Greek playwright Pantelis Horn; Lithuanian poet Pranas Morkūnas; Australian writer Fred J. Broomfield; Russian poet Marina Tsvetaeva; American author W. J. Cash; British travel writer Robert Byron; Norwegian-American author Waldemar Ager; British writer Arnold Haultain; Georgian poet Valerian Gaprindashvili; Australian-born novelist Elizabeth von Arnim; Irish author Valentine O'Hara; African-American author William H. Ferris; English writer A. J. Alan; American playwright Wilson Collison; American writer Aline Murray Kilmer; French author Louis Bertrand ; Swiss author Guy de Pourtalès; Swedish writer Karin Boye; English writer Samuel Middleton Fox; German writer Gabriele Reuter; Faroese poet Janus Djurhuus; Ecuadorian writer José de la Cuadra; Czech poet Jiří Orten; Italian writer Amalia Guglielminetti; Swiss writer Albin Zollinger; Lebanese-Palestinian writer May Ziade; Polish writer Tadeusz Boy-Żeleński; Portuguese writer Raul Proença; Croatian writer August Cesarec; English writer A. J. Alan; American journalist and author George Sibley Johns; American writer Elizabeth Madox Roberts; Puerto Rican poet José Antonio Dávila; Polish writer Emil Zegadłowicz; Australian writer Randolph Bedford; Belarussian poet Ales Prudnikau; British poet Frederick Victor Branford; Scottish poet Charles Murray ; American writer Anna Maynard Barbour; German playwright Max Neal; American music critic Pitts Sanborn; British journalist Emsley Carr; American poet Lola Ridge; American author Miles Menander Dawson; German dramatist and author Johannes Schlaf; British writer Max Plowman; Austrian author Ernst Décsey; French author Maurice Leblanc; Australian adventurer Francis Birtles; British writer Henrietta Elizabeth Marshall.
MUSIC AND FILM: American composer Clara Anna Korn; British composer Walford Davies; Czech writer and songwriter Karel Hašler; Italian composer Virginia Mariani Campolieti; Lithuanian composer Jurgis Karnavičius ; American composer Robert Hood Bowers; American composer Pearl G. Curran; Norwegian composer Iver Holter; Estonian composer Miina Härma; English composer Frank Bridge; American jazz composer Jelly Roll Morton; Irish composer Hamilton Harty; German composer Heinrich Zöllner; American composer Victor Schertzinger; Argentinian musician and songwriter Agustín Bardi; Chinese composer Ren Guang; Korean composer Hong Nan-pa; French composer Henri Christiné; Dutch composer Johan Wagenaar; English musical educator Stewart Macpherson; Uruguayan composer Enrique Saborido; Croatian composer Žiga Hirschler; Cuban composer Jorge Anckermann; German composer Hugo Becker; Austrian composer Wilhelm Kienzl; Swiss composer and author Marcel Sulzberger; American composer and musicologist Charles Sanford Skilton; Norwegian composer Christian Sinding; Mexican composer Miguel Lerdo de Tejada.
POLITICS, LAW, BUSINESS: British colonial administrator Hugh Clifford; Portuguese President and writer Manuel Teixeira Gomes; Dutch author and diplomat Hendrik Pieter Nicolaas Muller; British colonial administrator and scholar Richard James Wilkinson; American suffragette and socialist Ida Crouch-Hazlett; British administrator and translator Charles Archer; Georgian writer and jurist Giorgi Gvazava; American suffragette Laura Clay; British diplomat and writer Rennell Rodd, 1st Baron Rennell; British army officer and author Colin Robert Ballard; British politician and diplomat Edgar Vincent; Filipino writer and politician Norberto Romuáldez; Australian Governor-General Ronald Munro Ferguson; Polish writer and military officer Mariusz Zaruski; Mongolian prime minister Anandyn Amar; British civil servant and writer E. A. H. Blunt; British diplomat and writer Sir Horace Rumbold.
PURE AND APPLIED SCIENCES, MEDICINE, MATHEMATICS: English ornithologist Maud Doria Haviland; German ornithologist Anton Reichenow; Norwegian astronomer Kristian Lous; English entomologist Harry Eltringham; British bacteriologist Frederick Griffith; American obstetrician Kate Campbell Hurd-Mead; American nutritionist Mary Swartz Rose; Dutch mathematician Diederik Korteweg; Swiss geologist and palaeontologist Hans Georg Stehlin; Scottish mathematician Robert Franklin Muirhead; German physicist Hans Heinrich Euler; French mathematician Henri Lebesgue; German chemist Walther Nernst; American mathematician William Pitt Durfee; French bacteriologist Adrien Loir; Austrian physicist Arthur Erich Haas; English botanist Arthur William Hill; French chemist Paul Sabatier ; Russian biologist Georgii Karpechenko; American palaeontologist Walter W. Granger; American ichthyologist Hugh McCormick Smith; Swiss botanist Hans Schinz; German entomologist Oswald Duda; Danish entomologist William Lundbeck; Italian botanist Emilio Chiovenda; South African botanist Ernest Edward Galpin; British botanist and geologist Albert Charles Seward; American chemist Carleton Ellis; German mathematician Friedrich Engel ; American entomologist Alexandre Arsène Girault; Danish physicist Kirstine Meyer; German astronomer Philipp Johann Heinrich Fauth; German astronomer Hans Ludendorff; American geologist Robert T. Hill; German physician Adalbert Czerny; French physician and obstetrician Pierre-Victor-Adolphe Auvard; French mathematician Charles Émile Picard; German neurologist Otfrid Foerster; French physicist Jacques Curie; German mathematician Alfred Pringsheim; British ornithologist Claud Buchanan Ticehurst; Latvian-born mathematician Theodor Molien; American physicist Dayton Miller.